Are Nootropics Legal or Illegal? A Guide On International Rules

The debate on smart drugs and nootropic legality concerns is subject to confusion and contradiction online.

Are Nootropics Legal or Illegal? A Guide On International Rules

There is a lot of conflicting information about whether nootropics are legal, which might make you apprehensive about buying these highly effective performance enhancers.

Part of the confusion has been because there are so many productivity boosters classified as nootropics, including vitamins, herbal extracts, minerals, and even research compounds.

Here we will look at what makes a nootropic legal, the stance of synthetically manufactured nootropics, the possibility of encountering legal issues when purchasing these smart drugs, and their global regulation.


Who Regulates Nootropics?

Generally speaking, most nootropics encountered on a daily basis are legal to use around the world. But there are reportedly strict laws regarding the sale, marketing, and importation of these cognitive enhancers primarily targeted at suppliers and retailers.

Along with health advisory bodies, most governments determine how much control there is over nootropic buying and selling in a country. However, there is no single global law standard to regulate the nootropic market everywhere.

There is a fair degree of overlap internationally as far as most nootropics derived from plant sources and without synthetic components are concerned.

But the difference between synthetics and semi-synthetic nootropics is much broader with stricter substance limits and more legal issues.

Scheduling And Controlling Nootropics

There are many leeways when it comes to nootropic usage for recreational versus professional use. For instance, only the most powerful and often synthetically-created nootropics are administered for certain types of disease prevention.

As a result, many people also started to abuse them for cognition-enhancing benefits. That is why it becomes essential to schedule and control these products’ legal and illegal status (1).

For instance, controlled nootropics require prescription or age verification to buy. Although many of these nootropics are legal, they present stimulant effects to counteract symptoms of ADHD, narcolepsy, and even treat Alzheimer’s disease.

However, some may present negative interactions when used alongside other meds.

This can work well for people with specific conditions but is not recommended for others simply looking to improve brain aspects of attention or motivation.

Scheduled nootropics get classified by their risk of abuse, with Schedule V being the least risky and Schedule I presenting the highest risk level.

Nootropic Legality by Classification

The aim is almost the same, regardless of the type of nootropic you may plan on using.

For example, improve brain health and cognitive enhancement by boosting faster reaction time, increasing alertness, improving focus, and decreasing mental fatigue and brain fog.

Some nootropics may even possess adaptogenic properties, promising to let the body manage stress better and improve mood.

Many legal nootropics that are sourced naturally are typically free of the usual pharmacological effects of synthetic drugs. However, unregulated nootropic compounds can be hazardous since the safe dose and frequency may not yet be established (2).

That is why it is crucial to classify nootropic legality to ensure that people get safe-to-use products, and should a nootropic overstep its particular legal status. Then there are measures to regulate its use.

Herbs and Herbal Extracts

Herbal cognitive enhancers are natural nootropics derived from plants and herbal extracts.

These cognitive enhancing botanicals backed by scientific research and effective human use are much safer options than any nootropic synthetics. Moreover, plant extracts don’t produce side effects similar to other psychotropic drugs in their purest version (3).

It is essential to look for high-quality nootropic herbs with standardized extracts that feature certain trademarks or labels, such as good manufacturing practices.

Generally speaking, herbal supplements with cognitive-enhancing botanicals should be without artificial ingredients or common allergens.

Manufacturers concerned with nootropic safety will clearly define the presence of ingredients and allergens such as gluten, soy, or dairy. Bacopa monnieri, Ginkgo Biloba, Ginseng, and Valerian root are excellent examples of such nootropics.

Dietary Nootropic Nutrients

Any food-related cognitive enhancer, including dietary compounds such as nootropic vitamins and minerals like vitamins B, magnesium, omega 3 fatty acids, and citicoline, qualifies as a legal nootropic.

For the most part, any supplement containing these requires no purchase regulation but undergoes stringent quality assurance procedures when manufacturing.

Given their proven low side effect profile and the lack of dependency and withdrawal symptoms, natural dietary supplements with nootropic ingredients are often preferred by people over synthetic smart drugs. However, their effects are more subtle and gradual.

Typically these dietary supplements are taken alone or as part of a stack combining multiple OTC vitamins, minerals, and other ingredients with medicinal value.

Synthetics and Semi-Synthetics

Synthetic nootropics are derived from inorganic material, whereas semi-synthetics are artificially derived from solid foods to differentiate between the two types of nootropic supplements.

Nootropic synthetics include racetams, many of which are considered the best nootropics for cognitive performance. Currently, racetams are unapproved in the US as either a drug or dietary supplement, although some are approved in other countries.

On the other hand, nootropic semi-synthetics include nootropics like Huperzine A and Vinpocetine, which have legal or illegal statuses in different countries.

Once again, this is because some countries class these semi-synthetic compounds as supplements and other countries as controlled substances.

Then there are nootropic prescription drugs that are FDA-approved to treat specific medical conditions.

While these prescription synthetics have been scientifically proven to be effective for treating certain medical conditions, they may not be as beneficial when marketed for cognitive purposes only.

Many nootropic drugs are considered high-risk when used solely as memory products without supervision. This makes their effectiveness highly questionable.

Also, this makes buying synthetic nootropics complicated in places where they are regulated as controlled substances.

Various countries have different laws regarding drug regulation policies and importing nootropics, but they don’t have an identical legal definition.

The biggest problem arises with synthesized nootropics compounds, which may be illegal and banned in one country but given a prescription status in another. So to clear the confusion, here is a country-wide breakdown of what is legal or illegal to buy.


In Australia, natural and synthetic nootropic legality and other substances for human consumption are regulated by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA).

This Australian government department regulates all drug policies in nine different classes, going from Schedule I to Schedule IX.

Local laws state that most nootropics that meet the definition of a legal performance enhancer fall under Schedule II and are easily sold OTC in the country.

Anything that doesn’t fall in Schedule II is often found in Schedule III and can still be sold and purchased legally in Australia.

Schedule IV covers meds requiring a doctor’s prescription, such as piracetam.

If there is anything classed as Schedule IV that you would like to import from outside of Australia, the country’s Personal Importation Scheme allows you to import up to a three-month supply.

Schedules V and above are reserved for prohibited substances or anything that includes caution, poison, or dangerous poison on its labeling.

Finding herb, vitamin, mineral, or amino acid-based nootropics is not too much of a problem in Australia.

These legal nootropics are typically available in any ordinary shop and are regulated the same as food products, meaning they have to conform to the local quality and sanitary standards.

However, remember that cholinergic racetams are not classified as OTC legal nootropics in Australia.


Nootropic legality falls under Health Canada, which assigns a drug identification number (DIN) to all meds in the country. These include all regulated substances and can only be procured under the supervision of a medical professional.

Other legal nootropics such as herbs, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and antioxidants are readily available as over-the-counter options in Canada and are governed by the Natural and Non-Prescription Health Products Directorate (NNHPD).

Racetams are regulated substances and do not have drug identification numbers assigned to them. This makes their legal accessibility tricky as they cannot be sold commercially in Canada.

However, Canadian residents can import similar racetam variants from other countries, and most people import these from the USA, given the convenience and quick shipping.

Canadian nootropic users also need a medical professional’s authorization for smart drugs. Any stronger or prescription-based nootropic is not available for sale in Canada, given their legal grey area.


Most popular nootropic supplements are legal in China, which houses the largest nootropic dispensary worldwide.

Its products boast high-quality controls, and nootropics are readily available for Chinese nootropic users to purchase without a doctor’s authorization, including Modafinil and Provigil. Even piracetam and other racetams are entirely legal in China.

The semi-synthetic compound, Huperzine A, is a rare exception where Chinese law allows it to be sold as an over-the-counter and prescription drug.

European Union

Navigating nootropic legality in the European Union can be confusing since there are 28 governments involved.

The definition of a drug varies from one country in Europe to the other, and nootropics that are currently regulated as novel foods must undergo extensive testing before being sold to the public.

The legality of racetams, including piracetam, also varies across all 28 EU Member States.

Whereas some countries, like the Czech Republic and Slovakia, do not require a prescription to purchase piracetam, many European countries, including Italy, France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, and Spain, all require a prescription.

For example, the EU generally regulates vinpocetine as a drug requiring a prescription. Others like CDP choline and Alpha-GPC are treated as prescription drugs in some EU countries but in others are available in commercial nootropic stacks.

Under French nootropic regulation, piracetam ranks under its Ordonnance Liste II, classifying this nootropic as a poisonous substance and requiring a prescription from a healthcare provider.

It allows piracetam to be imported into the country for personal use but no more than a three-month supply.

On the other hand, the German government has much stricter restrictions on importing restricted nootropic substances from other countries but allows some of the most popular nootropics to be purchased unrestricted.

For example, German scientists have researched Ginkgo Biloba extensively, and the massive clinical support behind the natural herb has earned it a prescription herb status used for treating cardiovascular issues.


Japan sells its nootropics with more restrictive policies and legal concerns than many other countries.

In fact, Japanese nootropic law restricts access to many popular nootropics sold over-the-counter, including Citicoline, Sulbutiamine, and Piracetam, all of which are considered prescription options in Japan.

The country classifies almost all synthetically manufactured nootropics as prescription drugs and strictly regulates their sale.

The only way to legally obtain these is from a pharmacy if they have been prescribed to you by a doctor to treat a relevant medical condition.

The sale and possession of medications like Ritalin and Adderall without valid authorization are strictly prohibited.

It is also illegal to import these nootropics, including stimulants like amphetamines, methamphetamines, and certain medications for the treatment of ADHD into Japan.

The Japanese government regulation for such substances falls under the regulatory body called the Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA), making access to over-the-counter nootropics difficult.


The Russian nootropic scene allows most nootropic herbs like Bacopa Monnieri, Rhodiola Rosea, Ginkgo Biloba, and Maritime Pine Bark extract to be legal nootropics and available for purchase online and over the counter without any prescription.

Russian nootropic legality also states that while it is legal to purchase popular research-backed nootropics over the counter, some exceptions exist for specific brand names that need to be acquired via prescription only.

Almost all synthetic nootropics like Modafinil and Phenibut are prescription options and can only be obtained from a pharmacy if advised by a doctor for treating a relevant medical condition.

United Kingdom

Most natural nootropics are available for purchase as over-the-counter options in the United Kingdom. This includes any legal and natural smart drug in its single nootropic form or within a stacked product.

On the other hand, any synthetic nootropic is not considered a legal nootropic and needs a prescription following the 2016 Psychoactive Substances Act.

However, residents of the UK can freely buy aniracetam and oxiracetam. The Act also establishes any psychotropic drugs as illegal to supply, import, or export without proper license or prescription.

United States

In the US, the legal status of any nootropic depends on whether it falls under dietary supplements or pharmaceutical products.

Dietary supplements like caffeine, a potent natural stimulant, and l-theanine are entirely legal and can be purchased over the counter or online without a doctor’s note.

The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 classifies dietary supplements as food and not drugs.

This means that nootropics derived from plants like Sulbutiamine, Vinpocetine, and Huperzine A all fall under this category. But it also allows manufacturers some leeway to sell their products without proving their safety and effectiveness first.

Pharmaceutical products like Adderall and Modafinil are prescription only and can only be legally bought under a doctor’s instructions.

Nootropics that are not herbs, amino acids, vitamins, or antioxidants must be sold as research compounds. Also, there are no legal restrictions on owning or consuming popular nootropic supplements in the USA.

Internationally Banned Nootropics For Competitive Sport

The world anti-doping agency (WADA) has a list of several banned nootropics that catalog restricted nootropic substances with usage concerns related to sports performance for all the athletes competing.

WADA’s banned illegal nootropic supplements include the most potent synthetic nootropic performance enhancers that users may supplement to enhance alertness, decrease fatigue, or activate the cardiovascular system.

In addition, the list may also include cognitive enhancers that professional eSports gamers, chess players, or poker players may use to positively affect the areas of strategy and working memory and gain other such benefits.

This is new territory as eSports doping isn’t about gaining muscle or boosting endurance but more about improving the player’s reaction time.

Players have been known to have used medication with nootropic effects to improve the quality and duration of the gaming experience. Still, WADA prohibits these powerful nootropics like Modafinil, adrafinil, phenylpiracetam, and selegiline.

It is best to keep consulting with WADA’s changing nootropic status to see which ones are legal or illegal to use, as research on the effects of nootropics in this area is ongoing (4).


Consuming nootropics, whether sourced from any legal natural or synthetic substance, is common to improve overall mental health, boost mood, and decrease anxiety.

Most nootropics that fall in the class of legal nootropics, including herbal, dietary, and semi-synthetic compositions, remain uninhabited and are easy to buy freely.

Whereas synthetics classified as high-risk substances are subject to different legal and policy measures worldwide.